Northern Arizona's San Francisco Peaks is a remnant of a mountain range created by volcanic eruptions over the past six million years, resulting in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. The area is rich in dense ponderosa pine forest, with intermittent wetlands created by snowmelt and rainfall. These wetlands are essential to the ecosystem, providing forage and rest stops for migrating animals and birds. The water permeates through the igneous basalt rock, resulting in a build-up of clay that creates a seal at the bottom of the basin, preventing water from seeping through. The natural basin is disrupted by a man-made raised area, which was once a railroad line used for logging during the early 20th century. Today, it serves as a trail for hikers to enjoy the views and observe the rich wildlife in the area. The San Francisco Peaks is home to Arizona's highest point, Humphreys Peak, which rises up to 12,633 feet, with four other peaks on the mountain range also making up Arizona's top five highest points.